Published: Sep 29, 2020
Statements of fact and opinion in the articles in the Journal of Applied Materials and Technology are those of the respective authors and contributors and not of Journal of Applied Materials and Technology or the institution of Applied Materials and Technology Society and Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Riau. Neither Applied Materials and Technology Society and Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Riau nor Journal of Applied Materials and Technology make any representation, express or implied, in respect of the accuracy of the material in this journal and cannot accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions that may be made by the reader should make her or his own evaluation as to the appropriateness or otherwise of any experimental technique described.
Solid-State Transformer (SST), a power electronics based transformer is an emerging technology in electric power system. The transformer is being investigated to completely replace existing Line/Low Frequency Transformer (LFT). SST is composed of either of the two topologies: AC-DC-AC, two steps approach; or AC-AC, single-step approach. The two steps approach consists of three stages: AC-DC; DC-DC; and DC-AC stages. The DC-DC stage is made up of a boost DC-DC converter, a DC-AC inverter and a High Frequency Transformer, HFT. Therefore, SST performs the tasks of LFT by means of power electronic converters and HFT. The main essence of SST is to provide solution to the problem of bulkiness and heaviness of the LFT in the power distribution network. This is with the view to providing reduction in construction cost, cost of maintenance and transportation. The power electronics transformer provides numerous advantages which are grouped into: The transformer has high power density; it functions in blackouts and brownouts; and it provides easy means of distributed renewable energy integration into associated grid. Therefore, this paper provides a glance into the technology of the SST for its better understating and promotion of research activities in the area.
With increasing levels of wind generation in power systems, guaranteeing continuous power and system’s safety is essential. Frequency control is critical which requires a supplementary inertial control strategy. Since wind power generation depends directly on wind conditions, this creates an immense challenge for a conventional inertial controller with parameters suitable for all power grid operations and wind speed conditions. Therefore, tuning the controller gains is absolutely critical for an integrated conventional/renewable power system. Here, a fuzzy-logic adaptive inertial controller scheme for online tuning of the proportional-derivative-type (PD) inertial controller parameters is proposed. The proposed controller adapts the control parameters of the supplementary inertial control of the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine so that with any disturbance such as load changes, the active power output can be controlled to mitigate the frequency deviation. Simulation results indicate that the proposed adaptive controller demonstrates a more consistent and robust response to load changes compared to a conventional controller with fixed parameters.
LaMnO3 Perovskite Activation of Peroxymonosulfate for Catalytic Palm Oil Mill Secondary Effluent Degradation
The LaMnO3 perovskite catalyst was successfully synthesized using a simple solid-state reaction method. This catalyst is used to activate PMS in the organic content's degradation process in the secondary effluent palm oil mill (POMSE). The organic content in POMSE is equivalent to the COD value; thus the COD value is used as a parameter for the process's success. The catalyst performance test shows that the catalyst effectively reduces COD, and the waste meets the maximum threshold allowed by government regulations. The variables that affect the catalyst's effectiveness were the calcination temperature of the catalyst, catalyst loading, PMS concentration, and temperature. The temperature of calcination affects the perovskite crystal formation; the higher the temperature, the more active catalyst obtained. The catalyst loading and PMS concentration variables affect the degradation process of organic levels in POMSE; at low levels, the higher the catalyst loading and PMS concentrations will increase the effectiveness of the degradation process, but at certain levels, the addition of catalysts and PMS reduces the effectiveness of the process. LaMnO3-800oC catalyst presents the highest activity of 92.7% and met the allowable threshold of COD < 300 mg/L. The sequence for removal of COD among the three catalysts with an order of LaMnO3-800oC > LaMnO3-700oC > LaMnO3-600 oC. The pseudo-second-order kinetics equation fits the experimental data. The effect of temperature on the kinetics constant follows the Arrhenius equation. Furthermore, the catalyst obtained was stable, with no significant decrease in catalysts activity up to three runs.
In this study, three improved versions of UiO-66 metal organic frameworks (MOFs) were synthesised successfully: Different ratios of Ca+2/Zr+4 were used to synthesise UiO-66, UiO-66-10%Ca and UiO-66-30%Ca. Batch adsorption experiments were achieved to remove MB from wastewater by UiO-66-Ca. UiO-66-10%Ca exhibited the highest adsorption capacity with maximum MB adsorption capacity of 15 mg. g–1 in UiO-66-30%Ca while UiO-66 demonstrated lower MB loading. Langmuir and Freundlich models have been employed to describe isotherms. A kinetics study indicated pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order equations. In addition, an intraparticle diffusion model was utilised. The results presented here may facilitate the further enhancement of UiO-66 MOFs and advance the synthesis of multimetal MOFs in future research.
Added values of the local timbers materials for main bridge frame structures utilizing laminating composites technology
The objectives of this article are to seek the opportunity to enhance the local Indonesia timber material physical performances (encompassing the low-class quality of III and IV timbers with the Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) = 5,000 - 9,000 MPa) utilizing laminated composite technology to become higher-class timber quality (class II) with the Modulus of Elasticity (MOE)> 15,000 MPa so that it can be used as an alternative material for constructing the bridge mainframe structures (girder beams) especially for the Indragiri Hilir regency, Riau Province, Indonesia. This regency needs several hundred small-medium bridges for connecting 20 districts, 39 wards, and 197 villages using local materials such as local timbers. This laminating technology is not a new technology but the utilization of this technology for constructing the main bridges structures is challenging and limited to the implementation in the civil construction industrial sector. This study composed 2 types of the low-class quality (lcq) of timber materials (such as Shorea sp and Shorea peltata Sym) and 2 types of medium class-quality (mcq) ones (Dipterocarpus and Calophyllum) for constructing the main bridge structures. Based on the laboratory test results utilizing 80% of lcq materials and 20% mcq ones, these composite timber materials may increase the timbers MOE by 145% to 166% from the existing MOE value of the mcq solid timbers. Based on the simulations these laminated composites wooden bridge girders 2 x (70x20) m2, these timber materials have passed all the tests and the application of this technology may improve the lcq timber values and it could be used for an alternative material of the bridge girder's main structures.